• Cargo transport on the traditional Rhine was 6.4 % higher in 2019 than the previous year, when low waters had inflicted losses on cargo traffic. But the result in 2019 was still 6.4 % lower than in 2017. The recovery could not be completed, partly because of modal share losses and partly because of a weak macroeconomic climate.

• In western Europe, several cargo segments had lower results in 2019 compared to 2018. This was particularly the case for coal and iron ore. Growing segments were chemicals (in all countries) and partly also sands, stones and gravel (in France and Germany), while this segment decreased in the Netherlands and in Belgium due to environmental policies.

• On the Danube, iron ore traffic increased in 2019, as did the transport of agricultural products, foodstuff and feedstuff. Together, the steel and the agribulk segments account for 60% to 70 % of transport volumes on the Danube.

 
 

INLAND NAVIGATION GOODS TRANSPORT IN EUROPE

    SHARE OF THE COUNTRIES’ TONNES-KM (TKM) IN TOTAL TRANSPORT PERFORMANCE IN EUROPE (SHARE IN %)


    Sources: Eurostat [iww_go_atygo], OECD (Switzerland), Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
    The share of IWT performance in Europe in 2019 for Belgium is an estimation based on 2019 data from the Flemish and Walloon Waterway administrations.

     

    FIGURE 1: IWT TRANSPORT PERFORMANCE IN 2016, 2017, 2018 AND 2019 IN MAIN EUROPEAN IWT COUNTRIES (TRANSPORT PERFORMANCE IN MILLION TKM)


    Sources: Eurostat [iww_go_atygo], Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, OECD (Switzerland)
    The 2019 value for Belgium is an estimation based on 2019 data from the Flemish and Walloon Waterway administrations.

     

  • Rhine countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland) accounted for 81.6% of total inland waterway transport performance in the EU-27, plus Switzerland and Serbia. Danube countries had a share of 18.1%, and all other countries taken together represented 0.3%.
  •  

    FIGURE 2: YEARLY INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT PERFORMANCE IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES* (IN BILLION TKM IN 2019)


    Sources: Eurostat [iww_go_atygo] and OECD
    *Data for UK and Italy not yet available for 2019. The value for Belgium is an estimation based on 2019 data from the Flemish and Walloon Waterway administrations.

     

  • From the total inland waterway transport performance in Europe in 2019, amounting to around 144 billion TKM, 74.3% represented transport that crossed a border in one way or another – whether it be in the form of export, import or transit traffic. Transit traffic taken separately had a share of 21.1% in 2019, and export and import traffic each had a share of 26.6%.
  • Inland waterway transport is particularly relevant for certain corridors. Current market characteristics show that for cross-border traffic within the Rhine-Alpine corridor, inland waterways have a modal share of 54%. For the North-Sea Mediterranean corridor, IWW traffic amounts to 35%, 38% for the North-Sea-Baltic corridor and 14% for the Rhine-Danube corridor.
  •  

    FIGURE 3: YEARLY INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT PERFORMANCE IN EUROPE (IN BILLION TKM)


    Source: Eurostat [iww_go_atygo]
    2019 values include an estimation for Belgium based on 2019 data from the Flemish and Walloon Waterway administrations.

     

  • In Rhine countries, national transport has a share of 20% in Germany, 28% in the Netherlands, 40% in Belgium and 60% in France. The project of the Seine-Nord Europe Canal, which will link the French Seine-Oise basin with the Belgian inland waterway network for vessels with a length of up to 185 metres long and a loading capacity of up to 4,400 tonnes is supposed, in the future, to increase the share of international traffic in France, as well as in Belgium (According to the current planning schedule, the canal should be open from December 2028 onwards. See: https://canal-seine-nord-europe.fr/Calendrier).
  • In 2019, total cross-border transport performance (export and import) of the Netherlands had the following distribution: 54 % was loaded or unloaded in Germany, 40 % in Belgium, 4 % in France, and only 2 % in other countries (Source: CBS, https://opendata.cbs.nl/statline/#/CBS/nl/dataset/82515NED/table?ts=1594930953814).
  •  

    FIGURE 4: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT PERFORMANCE IN RHINE COUNTRIES ACCORDING TO TYPE OF TRANSPORT IN 2019 (IN BILLION TKM)


    Source: Eurostat [iww_go_atygo]
    The values for Belgium are partly estimated (see notes above).

     

  • Among Danube countries, Romania has almost equally high shares of national traffic (27%), export traffic (27%), import traffic (24%) and transit traffic (23%). In most other Danube countries, national traffic has a rather low share, while transit traffic’s share is very high.
  •  

    FIGURE 5: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT PERFORMANCE IN DANUBE COUNTRIES ACCORDING TO TYPE OF TRANSPORT IN 2019 (IN BILLION TKM)


    Source: Eurostat [iww_go_atygo]
    Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia.

     

  • Transit traffic reaches 56% in Hungary, 93% in Slovakia, 94% in Croatia and 96% in Bulgaria. A combination of geographical and economic factors can explain this pattern. The relatively small stretch along the Danube for countries such as Croatia and Slovakia have, favours a high share of transit traffic. Countries where steel industry makes use of IWT have a higher share of import traffic. This is the case for Austria (import traffic share 45%) and Serbia (import traffic share 61%).

 
 
 
 

INLAND NAVIGATION GOODS TRANSPORT IN MAIN EUROPEAN RIVER BASINS


     
     
     
    IWW TRANSPORT PER TYPE OF GOODS IN THE RHINE BASIN AND IN WESTERN EUROPE

      FIGURE 6: TRADITIONAL RHINE (IN MILLION TONNES)


      Source: CCNR analysis based on Destatis
       

    • Traditional Rhine transport (from Basel to the German-Dutch border) amounted to 175.6 million tonnes in 2019, which is 6.4% higher than in 2018, but 6.4% less than in 2017. Goods transport has not fully recovered from low waters in 2018, but the weaker macroeconomic framework conditions played another role.
    • Mineral oil products, as well as sands, stones and building materials had a 20% higher transport volume in 2019 than in 2018. Even when compared to 2017, mineral oil product volumes were 3% higher, and volumes of sands, stones, gravel surpassed the 2017 level by 12%.
    • Coal transport was 5% lower than in 2018, and even 20% below its level of 2017. The decline in coal transport is structural, as coal is being phased out of the energy sector in Germany. This will be addressed in more detail in the “Outlook” chapter. Iron ore transport (-7% compared to 2018 and -15% compared to 2017) came under pressure from a weakening of steel production in Germany, in the wake of the factors explained in chapter 1 (tariffs on steel, automobiles).
    • In 2020 a further decline of iron ore transport is expected, as German steel production was 10.4% lower in March 2020, than in March 2019 (Source: German Steel Federation). A similar reduction of iron ore transport on the Rhine is expected for 2020 if this strength of reduction in steel production will continue throughout the year.
    •  

      FIGURES 7 AND 8: GOODS TRANSPORTED ON THE TRADITIONAL RHINE BY TYPE OF GOODS* (IN MILLION TONNES)



      Source: CCNR analysis based on Destatis
      *For containers: net-weight. Traditional Rhine = Rhine from Basel to German-Dutch border.

       

    • Chemical transport recovered better from the low water period of 2018 as it reached its usual level during the first half year 2019. This was even more remarkable as chemical production decreased during this time. In the second half of 2019, transport volumes started to decrease somewhat. However, in the first quarter 2020, in contrast to steel production, German chemical production barely decreased.
    • The largest gap is visible for the Lower Rhine, where transport volumes in 2019 were still 8% below the 2017 level. The Upper Rhine has recovered better, as its 2019 transport volume was practically at the same level as in 2017. One explanation for this difference is that iron ore and coal, which decreased in 2019, had a share of 28% in transport volumes on the Lower Rhine, compared to only 9% on the Middle and 8% on the Upper Rhine.
    •  

       
       

      FIGURE 9: RHINE TRANSPORT ACCORDING TO RHINE STRETCH (IN MILLION TONNES)


      Source: CCNR analysis based on Destatis
       

      TABLE 1: VARIATION IN TRANSPORT VOLUME ON THE TRADITIONAL RHINE AND PER RHINE STRETCH

       Variation 2019/2018Variation 2019/2017
      Traditional Rhine in total+6.4%-6.4%
      Lower Rhine+5.1%-8.0%
      Middle Rhine+14.9%-4.7%
      Upper Rhine+17.6%-0.2%

      Source: CCNR based on Destatis

     
     
     
    Inland waterways in the Netherlands
     


       

    • In the Netherlands, the waterways forming the Dutch part of the Rhine are Nederrijn (northern Rhine branch), Waal (southern Rhine branch) and Lek (northern Rhine branch). Many other Dutch waterways are linked to these Rhine branches, such as the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal.
    •  

      FIGURE 10: THE NETHERLANDS – TRANSPORT VOLUME PER WATERWAY* (IN MILLION TONNES)


      Sources: Rijkswaterstaat and analysis Panteia
      *Stretch north of the river Lek.

       

      FIGURE 11: THE NETHERLANDS – TRANSPORT VOLUME PER WATERWAY* (IN MILLION TONNES)


      Sources: Rijkswaterstaat and analysis Panteia
      *Amsterdam Rijnkanaal Betuwepand

       

    • Iron ore and metal wastes are mainly transported on Waal and Old Maas, and they registered -8%, similar to the -7% on the traditional Rhine. According to long-term data (from 1994 onwards), coal and iron ore transports follow a negative trend in the Netherlands, but metals are on an upward trend. Oher segments with a long-term upward trend are chemicals, sands, stones and building materials, agricultural and food products.
    • Data for the entire Dutch inland waterway network show that chemicals experienced an accelerated increase in 2019 (+16.2%). Volumes of sands, stones and gravel fell in 2019, due to national environmental regulations which aimed at limiting nitrogen emissions. This affected the construction activity in the Netherlands, with the result of a decrease in related transport volumes. As in Belgium, new standards on perfluorinated compounds also influenced the volumes.
    •  

      FIGURE 12: IWW GOODS TRANSPORT ON ALL DUTCH WATERWAYS (IN MILLION TONNES)


      Sources: Eurostat [iww_go_atygo] and CBS

     
     
     
    Inland waterways in Germany

    • The following two figures show annual transport volumes for important German inland waterways other than the Rhine. The source of the data is the German waterway and shipping administration, except for one case (Wesel-Datteln Canal), where the source is the German Statistical Office (In 2019, charges for navigating on German inland waterways were abolished. This also led to a reduced statistical counting of transport volumes at locks. For most of the locks, 2019 figures were available, but not for all of them).
    • On the Main, the largest segment is sands, stones, gravel. They lost only slightly (-1%) compared to 2018. Mineral oil products registered a plus of 19 % which can be explained by the replenishment of oil reserves in response to the previous low water period in 2018.
    • On the Moselle, agribulk traffic is the largest segment and it benefitted from better harvest results, reaching a plus of 17%. Grain is mostly transported upstream on the Moselle from France to Germany. Steel traffic gained 11%, but coal lost around 25% of its volume as was the case for iron ore. On the Neckar, sands, stones and gravel gained 6.6%, but coal traffic also lost here (-32.6%).
    •  

      FIGURE 13: GERMANY – WATERWAYS IN WESTERN AND SOUTHERN PARTS OF THE COUNTRY (IN MILLION TONNES)


      Sources: German waterway and shipping administration except for Wesel-Datteln Canal (data from Destatis).
      Main: lock of Mainz-Kostheim; Moselle: lock of Koblenz; Neckar: lock of Mannheim-Feudenheim.

       

      • On the Elbe, mineral oil products form the largest segment but volumes fell by 8%, coal traffic by even 28%. Other cargo segments (agribulk, sands, stones and gravel) also recorded reductions, with the only exception being container transport (see part on containers in this chapter).
      • The results on the Mittelland Canal were mixed. The positive evolution was an increase of containers (see part on containers) and of sands, stones and gravel by 21%. Mineral oil products decreased (-12%) as did agribulk (-9%).
      •  

        FIGURE 14: GERMANY – WATERWAYS IN THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN PARTS OF THE COUNTRY (IN MILLION TONNES)


        Sources: German waterway and shipping administration
        Mittelland Canal: lock of Sülfeld; Elbe Lateral canal: lock of Uelzen; Elbe: lock of Geesthacht near Hamburg; Havel-Oder waterway: Niederfinow Boat Lift; Spree-Oder waterway: lock of Berlin-Charlottenburg.

         
         

         

      • The results for the entire German waterway network show an increase for sands, stones, gravel (+15%), mineral oil products (+19%) and chemicals (+5%). But the declining coal (-9%) and iron ore transport (-7%) strongly affected total volumes.
      •  

        FIGURE 15: IWW GOODS TRANSPORT ON GERMAN WATERWAYS (IN MILLION TONNES)


        Source: Destatis

       
       
       
      Inland waterways in Belgium
       


         

      • The majority of rivers and canals in Belgium recorded far and wide a reduction of transport volumes in 2019. Transport on the total Flemish Waterway network decreased by 2.6% (to 70.2 mio. t). An important reason was that transport of construction materials (the largest segment in Belgium) was disrupted by new standards for perfluorinated compounds.
      •  

        FIGURE 16: BELGIUM-FLANDERS – GOODS TRANSPORT PER RIVER AND CANAL (IN MILLION TONNES)


        Source: De Vlaamse Waterweg
         

        FIGURE 17: BELGIUM-WALLONIA – GOODS TRANSPORT PER RIVER AND CANAL (IN MILLION TONNES)


        Source: Direction générale opérationnelle de la Mobilité et des Voies hydrauliques
        *N-B-P Canal = Nimy-Blaton-Péronnes Canal

         

      • Vessels in Wallonia suffered from dry hot weather in 2019 which led to draught restrictions on some canals. The volumes transported on the Walloon inland waterway network amounted to 39.13 mio. t, a decrease of 5.8% compared to 2018 and -3.7% compared to 2017. The waterway administration Service Public de Wallonie (SPW) reported that sectors such as metallurgy and quarries chose other modes of transport because of the drought conditions.
      •  

        FIGURE 18: FLANDERS – INLAND WATERWAY GOODS TRANSPORT PER GOODS SEGMENT* (IN MILLION TONNES)


        Source: De Vlaamse Waterweg
        *Data for chemicals and fertilizers were not available according to the same definition for the years before 2016.

         

      • Around 27 mio. t of sands, stones and gravel were transported In Flanders, compared to 16 mio. t in Wallonia. In both parts of Belgium, this largest segment had 3% less cargo volume in 2019. The cargo segment with the strongest growth in Flanders is that of machines and other goods, with 9.38 mio. t in 2019.
      •  

        FIGURE 19: WALLONIA – INLAND WATERWAY GOODS TRANSPORT PER GOODS SEGMENT (IN MILLION TONNES)


        Source: Direction générale opérationnelle de la Mobilité et des Voies hydrauliques
         

      • Long-term data over a period of 30 years for Wallonia show that agricultural products, fertilizers, metals, and machines follow a positive trend. Negative trends are observed for coal (since 2004) and for iron ore (since 2002). For the rest of the product segments, there is a constant tendency.

       
       
       
      Inland waterways in France
       


         

      • In France, the year 2019 brought a very good harvest result, with 70.4 million tonnes of cereals including all kinds of wheat, spelt, rye, barley, and oats (Source: Eurostat [apro_cpsh1]). In 2018, the harvest result had been 61.7 million tonnes compared to only 53.5 million tonnes in 2016. Therefore, the increase of inland waterway transport of agricultural products (+11% on a national level) was somehow logical. In the Seine-Oise basin, agricultural transports increased by 15%, on the Moselle by 16%, and on Rhône and Saône by 11%.
      • Sands, stones and gravel also had a positive year, with an absolute increase of more than 3 million tonnes or +14%. In the Seine-Oise basin, 15.6 million tonnes represented 66 % of total IWT volumes in this basin, and 61% of all sands, stones, gravel and building materials flowing on French inland waterways.
      •  

        FIGURE 20: GOODS TRANSPORTED ON INLAND WATERWAYS IN FRANCE (IN MILLION TONNES)


        Source: VNF
         

      • The construction segment has undoubtedly followed a positive trend in recent years in France, fuelled by infrastructure works in Paris which make use of inland vessels for the delivery of construction materials and for the transport of excavation materials. The agribulk segment, as the second largest goods segment, is also evolving positively. But a general challenge in France is to integrate IWT further into logistical chains, especially in the containerised segment of machines and vehicles, but also for chemicals, mineral oil products and metals, where IWT volumes are significantly lower than in other western European countries.
      •  

        FIGURE 21: IWW GOODS TRANSPORT ON ALL FRENCH WATERWAYS (IN MILLION TONNES)


        Source: VNF (data are based on goods classification NST/R)
         

      • Looking at data over a period of 30 years, it can be seen that agricultural products and fertilizers follow a positive long- term trend in France. For metals and metal products, this is also the case, but in comparison with the Belgian data, stronger cyclical variations (boom and recession 1998-2003, and again in 2005-2010) accompany the upward trend in France.

       
       
       
      IWW TRANSPORT PER TYPE OF GOODS ON THE DANUBE*
      *The present part is based almost entirely on the Market Observation report of the Danube Commission.

      • On the Danube, the introduction of new tariffs in international trade did not prevent the transport of raw materials for the steel industry (iron ore, pellets, coking coal) to grow in 2019. This can be regarded as a major difference when compared to the evolution in Rhine countries in 2019, where iron ore transport decreased.
      • An even stronger increase was recorded in the transport of food products and foodstuffs. At the same time, the transport of cereals (mainly wheat and maize) from the ports of the Middle Danube to the estuary ports at the Black Sea remained at the 2018 level. The transport of petroleum and chemical products (fertilizers) remained quite stable as well.
      • Goods transport on the Upper Danube is presented by data at the lock of Gabčíkovo. At this border point between Slovakia and Hungary, the total transport volume was 5.84 million tonnes in 2019, compared to 4.50 million tonnes in 2018 (+30%). Upstream transit traffic had a share of 63.3%, which was similar to earlier years (2017: 64.8%, 2018: 65.0%) and 59.4% of the volumes were moved by pushed convoys (58.2% in 2018). During times of stable navigation conditions, an average of 140-145 pushed convoys passed the lock of Gabčikovo each month.
      •  

         
         

        FIGURE 22: GOODS TRANSPORT ON THE UPPER DANUBE* (IN MILLION TONNES)


        Source: Danube Commission market observation
        *At Gabčíkovo (border between Slovakia and Hungary).

         

      • Food products and foodstuffs, as well as iron ores, are entirely transported upstream on the Upper Danube at this border point, while the other products are transported in both directions.
      • Goods transport on the Middle Danube is presented by data at the lock of Mohács in southern Hungary, near the border with Croatia and Serbia. Total cargo traffic represented 5.58 million tonnes in 2019. Total volumes in 2019 were 23.4% higher than the 4.5 million tonnes that were transported in 2018.
      • Upstream transit traffic also has the largest share on the Middle Danube (59.4% in 2019). Transport is done mainly by pushed convoys, which carried 4.44 million tonnes of cargo in 2019, a share of 79.5% of total traffic on the Middle Danube. During times when navigation conditions were stable, 60 to 70 pushed convoys passed the lock of Mohács each month.
      • Iron ore is entirely transported upstream on the Middle Danube, while grain, food products and foodstuffs are entirely transported downstream. The first point reflects the provision of the steel industry in Austria and Hungary with raw materials, while the second point reflects the export of agricultural products from Hungary downstream on the Danube to the Lower Danube region and to seaports.
      •  

        FIGURE 23: GOODS TRANSPORT ON THE MIDDLE DANUBE* (IN MILLION TONNES)


        Source: Danube Commission market observation
        *At Mohács (southern Hungary – border area with Croatia and Serbia).

       
       
       
      Inland waterway transport on the Lower Danube in Romania

      • On the lower Danube in Romania, a total amount of 33.26 mio. t was transported in 2019, 11.9 % more than in 2018. The share of agricultural products was almost 30% and they registered a plus of 21%. Iron ore, chemicals and metals continued their upward trend of previous years. It should be noted that iron ore transport on the Middle and the Lower Danube had a growth-orientated trend in recent years. This aspect will also be addressed later in chapter 8 (Outlook).
      •  

        FIGURE 24: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT ON THE LOWER DANUBE IN ROMANIA* (IN MILLION TONNES)


        Sources: Eurostat [iww_go_atygo] and CCNR analysis
        *For iron ore, sands, stones, and mineral oil products, data for the years before 2014 were not available.

         

      • Agricultural transport on the Danube in Romania has certainly increased in the last ten years. But a comparison with other transport modes shows that road transport has grown faster, at least since 2010.
      • Traffic on the Lower Danube is not only carried out by inland vessels but also by seagoing vessels. Galati and Braila are the most important river-sea ports on the Lower Danube, and cargo transhipped by seagoing vessels increased strongly in 2019.
      • On the Sulina Canal, seagoing vessels carry out the main part of freight traffic. In 2019, traffic on the Sulina Canal reached a volume of 5,487,000 tonnes, which is 23.6% more than in 2018.
      •  

        TABLE 2: GOODS TRANSPORT ON THE SULINA CANAL

        Year, Mio. t201420152016201720182019
        Total3.673.853.764.314.445.49
        Danube → Black Sea3.243.263.253.613.674.33
        Black Sea → Danube0.420.580.510.700.771.16

        Source: Danube Commission market observation
         

      • The Danube-Black Sea Canal runs from Cernavodă on the Danube river to Constanţa (southern arm) and to Năvodari (northern arm) on the Black Sea.
      •  

        TABLE 3: GOODS TRANSPORT ON THE DANUBE-BLACK SEA CANAL

        Year, Mio. t2013201420152016201720182019
        Total13.9614.4314.0214.5513.7714.1216.74
        International traffic8.637.908.628.036.916.428.89
        National traffic5.336.535.406.526.867.77.85

        Source: Danube Commission market observation

       
       
       
       
      IWW CONTAINER TRANSPORT IN EUROPE
       
      Container transport per river basin
       

        FIGURE 25: CONTAINER TRANSPORT ON THE TRADITIONAL RHINE (IN 1,000 TEU AND IN 1,000 UNITS), 2000-2019


        Source: Destatis
         

      • Although there was no substantial low-water period on the Rhine in 2019, the repercussions of 2018 on the modal split share were still felt by container operators (Source: Information from container operators on the Rhine). Furthermore, the continuing congestion in the ports of Rotterdam and Antwerp also had a negative impact on the modal split, as well as the weak macroeconomic climate (declining industrial production, increasing tariffs and trade barriers, impact of Brexit) had an impact as well. The result of 2.04 million TEU was 4.0% lower than in 2018, but the total net weight of goods in all containers was 2.9% higher and amounted to 15.16 mio. tonnes.
      •  

        FIGURE 26: CONTAINER TRANSPORT ON THE TRADITIONAL RHINE (IN MILLION TONNES, NET WEIGHT OF GOODS IN CONTAINERS), 2009-2019


        Source: Destatis
         

      • German, French and Swiss regions use the Upper Rhine for exporting goods in containers, by sending them to Belgian and Dutch seaports, from where they are sent further away to overseas destinations. Therefore, the shares of containers loaded with goods and empty containers are different, depending on the transport direction. Containers transported downstream are more often loaded with goods than containers transported upstream.
      •  

        FIGURES 27 AND 28: CONTAINER TRANSPORT ON THE TRADITIONAL RHINE, DOWNSTREAM VERSUS UPSTREAM TRAFFIC AND LOADED AND EMPTY CONTAINERS (IN 1,000 TEU)



        Source: CCNR analysis based on Destatis
         

      • Container transport on other German waterways than the Rhine can be divided into waterways in northern and eastern Germany (Mittelland Canal, Elbe, Weser, etc.) and waterways in western and southern Germany (west German canals, Main, Neckar, Moselle). The Dortmund-Ems Canal flows in both western and northern Germany, but its container traffic is more intense in its northern stretch near Emden and the North Sea.
      •  

        FIGURE 29: CONTAINER TRANSPORT IN NORTHERN AND EASTERN PARTS OF GERMANY* (IN 1,000 TEU)


        Source: Destatis
        *Elbe = whole Elbe region including Upper, Middle, Lower Elbe and Elbe Lateral Canal

         

      • On the Elbe and the Mittelland Canal the results in 2019 were much higher than in 2018 (+13% and +12%). It must be added that by far the largest part of container transport on the Elbe takes place on the Lower Elbe (between Hamburg and the North Sea), the northern stretch of the Middle Elbe (between Schnackenburg and Hamburg) and on the Elbe Lateral Canal. Container transport on the Upper Elbe, between the German-Czech border and Meißen, is still much lower (In 2019, container transport on the Upper Elbe was 6,087 TEU, compared to 127,373 TEU on the Middle Elbe between Schnackenburg and Hamburg, and 128,749 TEU on the Lower Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea. Source: Destatis).
      •  

        FIGURE 30: CONTAINER TRANSPORT IN WESTERN AND SOUTHERN PARTS OF GERMANY (IN 1,000 TEU)


        Sources: Destatis and Moselle Commission (Moselle)
         

      • The Wesel-Datteln Canal is an important canal in the Ruhr area, and container traffic was 12% higher in 2019 than in 2018. TEU on the Neckar were also recovering from 2018, with a plus of 46%. Container transport on the Main has not yet recovered from the low water period of 2018.
      • In Flanders, container transport increased by 4% in 2019 and reached 887,581 TEU. Tonnage transported in containers also increased by 4% and settled on exactly 8.0 million tonnes. Container transport on the Albert Canal increased by 9.5% up to a level of 577,000 TEU.
      • On the central Belgian north-south axis between Antwerp, Brussels and Charleroi (Brussels-Scheldt Maritime Canal), 201,000 TEU (+1.8%) were registered, and there was also an increase of 11.2% on the Leie (Lys).
      •  

        FIGURE 31: CONTAINER TRANSPORT IN BELGIUM-FLANDERS (IN 1,000 TEU)


        Source: De Vlaamse Waterweg
         

      • In Wallonia, the Waterway administration collects data on container transport on the basis of several terminals (Liège Trilogiport, Liège Container Terminal, Euroports Inland Terminals at Monsin, Terminaux de Ghlien et de Garocentre – La Louvière). For 2019, a new record was reached with 117,815 TEU in total.
      • In the neighbouring Nord-Pas-de-Calais region in France, container transport continued its success story as well, reaching 110,000 TEU in 2019. This was 1,048 TEU more than in 2018 (+1%). The statistical report of the regional VNF district of Nord-Pas-de-Calais reports two different types of container lines: commercial container lines (88,829 TEU) and lines with transport of waste that is recycled (20,865 TEU). The container lines with an increase in 2019 were notably the commercial lines of Dunkerque, Dourges and Anzin.
      • In the Seine basin, container transport was 1% lower in 2019 than the previous year. According to VNF, this decrease was due to the strikes in the French ports of Le Havre and Rouen at the end of 2019.
      •  

        FIGURE 32: CONTAINER TRANSPORT PER BASIN IN FRANCE* (IN 1,000 TEU)


        Source: VNF
        *The French Rhine is not shown here as, in the French statistics, only French Rhine ports are taken into account, although container transport on the Upper Rhine is also fuelled by German and Swiss ports.

         

      • In large French ports, waterside container transport took a leap forward. Paris registered +13%, Lyon +9%, Strasbourg +16%. According to port statistics, the modal split share of waterside container traffic within the whole container transport in the port (road, rail, water) was 32% in Paris, 25% in Lyon, 20% in Strasbourg, 33% in Lille, and 35% in Mulhouse.
      •  

        TABLE 4: WATERSIDE CONTAINER TRAFFIC IN LARGE FRENCH PORTS (IN 1,000 TEU)

         20152016201720182019
        Ports of Paris (Seine-Oise)163.9161.3161.9157.9178.9
        Port of Lyon (Rhône-Saône) 91.3 77.5 72.7 70.8 77.3
        Port of Strasbourg (Rhine)102.4105.2106.5 66.0 76.7
        Port of Lille (Nord-Pas-de-Calais) 57.8 56.2 58.7 53.3 52.7
        Port of Mulhouse (Rhine) 30.4 28.7 32.8 28.6 28.6

        Sources: Ports de Paris, Port de Lyon, Port de Strasbourg, Port de Lille, Port de Mulhouse, VNF

       
       
       
      Container transport per country in Europe

      • It is the case that 99.9% of all container transport performance (tkm) on European inland waterways occurs in four countries only: the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and France. In terms of TEU, container transport progressed by +1 % in the Netherlands, by +4 % both in France and in Belgium, but was 4 % lower in Germany (for the explanation, see section on Rhine container transport).
      •  

        FIGURE 33: IWW CONTAINER TRANSPORT PER COUNTRY IN EUROPE* (IN MILLION TEU)


        Source: Eurostat [iww_go_actygo]
        *The figures for the countries cannot be added together because this would incur double counting. The total value for EU-28 takes into account cross-border container traffic.

         

      • There were 51.2 million tonnes of cargo in containers in the Netherlands (equalling 14.2 % of total IWW transport in the country), 35.5 million tonnes in Belgium (17.1 % of total Belgian IWT), 21.2 million tonnes in Germany (10.4 % of total German IWT) and 3.5 million tonnes in France (5.5 % of total French IWT).
      • Luxembourg is a country where container transport has developed to significant levels since 2014, due to emerging Moselle container traffic. A volume of 11,509 TEU in 2019 and 0.137 million tonnes of goods in containers were transported on the Moselle stretch in Luxembourg. This was a clear increase compared to 2018 (+20 % for TEU and +29 % for tonnes).

     
     
     
     

    INLAND NAVIGATION AND OTHER MODES OF TRANSPORT

      FIGURES 34 AND 35: IWW MODAL SPLIT SHARE EVOLUTION IN RHINE AND DANUBE COUNTRIES* (IN %, BASED ON TONNE-KILOMETRES)



      Source: Eurostat [tran_hv_frmod]
      *Share of inland waterway transport performance in total (IWT + Road + Rail) transport performance. Road data include the transport performance of trucks registered in foreign countries, according to the new series [tran_hv_frmod] made available by Eurostat only recently. Road data registered in the Eurostat database for the series [road_go_ta_tg] used for the calculation of modal split figures in previous reports were based on nationality of registration of the vehicle and not on transport on national territory. This methodological difference has some effects on the modal split shares presented in previous reports both per country and per goods segment. For this reason, it was decided not to show IWW modal split evolution per goods segment in this year’s report until a better methodology can be found.

       

    • The modal split share in the Netherlands increased between 2009 and 2012, when it stood at 47.2%. In the following years, it decreased, reaching 43.2% in 2018. The reduction in coal transport, which started in 2015, and the low water periods in 2015, 2017 and 2018 can explain parts of this downward trend.

     
     
    Modal split of freight transport (in %) 2009-2018 for EU 28

      FIGURE 36: MODAL SPLIT SHARE OF INLAND TRANSPORT MODES IN THE EU-28 (IN %)


      Source : Eurostat [tran_hv_frmod]
       

    • The modal share of IWT on the level of the EU-27 was 6.0% in 2018 and thus behind road transport (75.3%) and rail transport (18.7%). As many EU countries do not have inland waterways, the overall modal split share of IWT on the EU level should not be used as a performance indicator for the success of inland waterway transport in the EU. In order to measure the success of IWT in the transport market, it is better to look at the modal split share evolution of IWT in countries where there is a sufficiently dense inland waterway network, such as in the Netherlands, Belgium or Germany, or where inland navigation traditionally has a high importance for goods transport, for example in many Danube countries.
    • For Germany, a long-term comparison between IWT and rail transport shows that inland waterway transport has mostly performed better than rail transport in the mass cargo market segments. For liquid cargo, the trend in rail transport was quite negative, while it was slightly positive in inland waterway transport. IWT volumes of ores, sands, stones, and gravel (taken together) are on a lower, but – apart from low water effects – rather constant level since the end of the financial crisis. In rail transport, they have evolved more negatively since 2011. For coal, the trends in both transport modes are similar.
    • Considering the 2017 and the 2018 data, it is seen that rail transport took over volumes from IWT during the low water year 2018. But a comparison of the volumes that IWT lost with the volumes that rail transport gained, shows that the quantities do not match. Indeed, the chemical volumes that were lost for inland waterway transport in 2018 (2.76 mio. t) were 3.5 times higher than the volumes that rail transport gained in 2018 (0.78 mio. t = 28% of what IWT lost). This shows that railway transport could not substitute inland waterway transport during the low water period. It shows also that the overall freight transport decreased, explaining the interruptions of logistical and production chains and the loss of several hundreds of millions of Euro for the chemical industry.
    • For mineral oil products, the ratio is a little lower, but volumes lost for IWT were still twice as high than the volumes gained by rail. For ores, sands, stones and gravel, the volumes that IWT lost were 5.3 times higher than the volumes gained by railway transport in 2018.
    •  

      FIGURES 37, 38, 39 AND 40: TRANSPORT VOLUMES FOR LARGE TRADITIONAL GOODS SEGMENTS IN INLAND WATERWAY AND RAIL TRANSPORT IN GERMANY (IN MILLION TONNES)





      Source: Eurostat [rail_go_grpgood], [iww_go_atygo]
      *The name of this product group within the NST 2007 classification is coal & crude oil, but the share of coal is 99.9 %. Crude oil is transported mostly by pipeline, not by barge or rail.

       

    • In container transport, rail transport still has a lead. During the time period 2008-2018, railways transported on average 2.7 times as many TEU each year than inland vessels in Germany. However, between 2013 and 2017, this factor decreased continuously from 2.9 down to 2.4. Inland vessels gained market shares in container transport during this period. It was only the low-water period in 2018 that interrupted this trend, as in 2018 the factor increased to 3.0.
    •  

      FIGURE 41: TEU VOLUMES TRANSPORTED BY RAIL AND ON INLAND WATERWAYS IN GERMANY (IN MIO. TEU)


      Source: Eurostat [rail_go_contnbr],[iww_go_actygo]