Luxembourg

  • Statistical data on employees in the IWT freight and passenger sector, affiliated to the Luxembourg social security system, were collected from the General Inspection of Social Security on the basis of data from the Joint Social Security Centre (Inspection générale de la sécurité sociale (IGSS) sur la base des données du Centre commun de la sécurité sociale) (CCSS). These data relate only to employees, not to the self-employed, active in the sector as of 31 March 2020 and cover administrative staff as well.
  • In the freight transport sector, 125 companies employ in total 4,110 workers affiliated to the Luxembourg social security system. This number is similar to the number of workers registered in German IWW freight transport. The number for passenger transport is less significant, with only six companies employing in total 200 workers. The high number of employees in freight transport could be explained by the fact that:
    • Luxembourg has good access to the inland waterway network in the Rhine region, and
    • Luxembourg offers very competitive economic conditions for companies regarding the level of taxes and social security costs.
  • As is the case in other countries, most employees are male workers (94%).
  • A very high share of employees in the IWT sector in Luxembourg are foreigners. These foreigners come from both western and eastern European countries. While the two most frequent nationalities among western Europeans are Dutch and German, the two most frequent nationalities of foreign workers coming from eastern Europe are Czech and Polish.
  • Workers from eastern Europe represent 39% of employees in Luxembourg, mostly coming from the Czech Republic, Poland and Romania. This figure seems to confirm the observed migration of inland waterway workers from the east to the west, and also observed in countries such as Austria, Germany or the Netherlands. Foreign employees coming from Rhine countries, mainly the Netherlands and Germany, represent 57% of the workers, and 75% of all employees working for a Luxembourg company in freight transport are not posted.
  •  

    FIGURES 36 AND 37: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN IWW FREIGHT (FIRST PIE CHART) AND PASSENGER (SECOND PIE CHART) TRANSPORT IN LUXEMBOURG BY NATIONALITY (AS OF MARCH 2020)



    Source: Inspection générale de la sécurité sociale sur la base des données du Centre commun de la sécurité sociale
     

  • In Luxembourg, most workers – both in the freight and passenger transport sector – are aged between 30 and 59. A similar age structure can be observed in most IWT countries for which data on the age of IWT workers were available. However, on the basis of the available data for Luxembourg, it is not possible to draw conclusions as to the age evolution of IWT workers in this country.
  •  

    FIGURES 38 AND 39: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN IWW FREIGHT (FIRST CHART) AND PASSENGER (SECOND CHART) TRANSPORT IN LUXEMBOURG BY AGE GROUP (AS OF MARCH 2020)



    Source: Inspection générale de la sécurité sociale sur la base des données du Centre commun de la sécurité sociale
     
    Austria

  • Austria belongs to those countries which have a higher importance of passenger IWT than of freight IWT in terms of employment. The difference in the number of employees between the two categories has increased substantially over the last decade. According to data from the Austrian Public Employment Service (AMS), the number of employees in passenger IWT increased gradually from 254 in 2008 to 416 in 2019 (strongest increase between 2013 and 2016), whereas the number of employees in freight IWT followed a reversed trajectory, decreasing from 167 to 50 from 2008 to 2019. However, it has stabilised since 2017. All in all, the number of employees in Austrian IWT increased from 421 to 466 between 2008 and 2019.
  •  

    FIGURE 40: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN AUSTRIAN INLAND NAVIGATION BY SECTOR*


    Source: Austrian Public Employment Service
    * The number of employees in freight and passenger transport represent the average numbers of employees per year. In passenger transport, there are fluctuations in the number of employees during a year, due to the seasonality of passenger transport activities.

     

  • While the number of male employees decreased from 331 in 2008 to 307 in 2019, the number of female workers increased from 94 to 160 in that period. The share of women in IWT employment in Austria was about 34% in 2019. The positive development of female employment is explained by the high share of women working in passenger IWT, corresponding to the previously presented numbers for France and Germany. The AMS data imply that a maximum of eight employees per year work in maritime and coastal navigation. Indeed, Austria is a landlocked country in central Europe with no access to maritime waters.
  •  

    FIGURE 41: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN AUSTRIAN INLAND NAVIGATION* BY GENDER


    Source: Austrian Public Employment Service
    * Including between 0 and 8 employees working in maritime and coastal navigation per year.

     

  • According to the AMS data, the age group containing all employees aged 45 and older decreased from 192 to 183 employees from 2008 to 2019. On the contrary, the number of employees between 25 and 44 years of age increased substantially from 153 to 194 in that period, in particular between 2013 and 2016. The number of young employees under 25 years declined up until 2013 but increased overall from 80 to 89 between 2009 and 2019.
  •  

    FIGURE 42: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN AUSTRIAN INLAND NAVIGATION* BY AGE GROUP


    Source: Austrian Public Employment Service
    * Including between 0 and 8 employees working in maritime and coastal navigation per year.

     

  • The number of foreigners among the employees in Austrian IWT increased substantially from 120 in 2008 to 191 in 2019. In the same period, the number of Austrian IWT employees decreased slightly from 305 to 275. The overall increase of employment in Austrian IWT between 2008 and 2019 can therefore mainly be attributed to a net influx of 106 foreigners between 2013 and 2016.
  •  

    FIGURE 43: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN AUSTRIAN INLAND NAVIGATION* – AUSTRIANS AND FOREIGNERS


    Source: Austrian Public Employment Service
    * Including between 0 and 8 employees working in maritime and coastal navigation per year.

     

  • The largest group of foreigners in 2019 and in previous years were of Serbian nationality. There are still also some persons with ‘former Yugoslavia’, and ‘Serbia and Montenegro’ nationalities, although their number is decreasing. Hungarians are in second place behind Serbians.
  •  

    FIGURE 44: FOREIGNERS EMPLOYED IN AUSTRIAN INLAND NAVIGATION BY NATIONALITY (2019)


    Source: Austrian Public Employment Service
     

    FIGURE 45: NUMBER OF FOREIGN EMPLOYEES IN AUSTRIAN INLAND NAVIGATION* BY NATIONALITY AND YEAR


    Source: Austrian Public Employment Service
    * Including between 0 and 8 employees working in maritime and coastal navigation per year.

  • The Austrian Employment Service does not have data on the self-employed in Austrian IWT. However, according to the Structural Business Statistics of Statistics Austria, 59 men and 15 women were active as self-employed in Austrian passenger IWT in 2017. In freight IWT, 8 persons were self-employed, none of whom were women.
  •  
    Czech Republic

  • At the level of the Czech Statistical Office, the statistical dataset that is available and covers IWT, is an overall dataset covering the whole NACE sector 50 (water transport). This includes IWW, maritime and coastal navigation (both passenger and freight). However, the Czech Republic is a country in central Europe with no maritime waters, so it is highly likely that this national database relates mainly to inland navigation employment in the Czech Republic.
  • In addition, in 2017, the number of persons employed in the Czech Republic in the whole NACE sector 50 was 619, according to this database. A small difference of only 6 persons can therefore be observed compared to the Eurostat SBS database (613 persons employed in inland navigation in the Czech Republic in 2017), allowing to confirm the abovementioned hypothesis.
  • In the Czech Republic, total employment decreased from 2005 until 2016, but has stabilised since that year. The number of self-employed has increased slightly since 2005, from 74 self-employed in 2005 to 100 in 2017.
  •  

    FIGURE 46: NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED IN THE NACE SECTOR 50* IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC


    Sources: Czech Statistical Office, CCNR analysis
    * Although the NACE sector 50 contains maritime and inland navigation together, a comparison with Eurostat data for employment in inland navigation shows that at least 99% of the Czech NACE 50 employment is inland navigation employment. The number of self-employed was calculated from deducting the number of employees from all persons employed.

     

  • In 2017, the average monthly gross wage per person was only 862 Euro in Czech inland waterway transport. A further split into freight and passenger transport employment is not possible based on the national database. However, Eurostat data (which are only available for the year 2017) indicate that freight and passenger transport have an almost equally high amount of employment in the Czech Republic.
  •  

    FIGURE 47: AVERAGE MONTHLY GROSS WAGE (IN €) AND SHARE OF PERSONNEL COSTS IN TOTAL COSTS (IN %) IN THE CZECH INLAND NAVIGATION SECTOR*


    Sources: Czech Statistical Office, CCNR analysis
    * NACE sector 50. See remarks in the text. Conversion from Czech Crowns to Euro via annual reference exchange rates from ECB (https://www.oenb.at/isaweb/report.do?report=2.14.5).

     

  • A view of the average monthly wage level in the Czech Republic by economic sectors shows that the wage level in water transport is below the average wage level in the Czech transport sector. In the time period 2013-2017, this wage gap was 18% on average. The wage gap was 24% higher when comparing water transport wages with wages in the overall economy.
  •  

    FIGURE 48: AVERAGE MONTHLY GROSS WAGES AND SALARIES OF EMPLOYEES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC (IN €, FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT)


    Sources: Czech Ministry of Transport, CCNR analysis
    * Water transport = NACE sector 50. See remarks in the text. Conversion from Czech Crowns to Euro via annual reference exchange rates from ECB (https://www.oenb.at/isaweb/report.do?report=2.14.5).

     

  • The low wages in Czech water transport and the international character of inland navigation, with a high mobility of workers, can be regarded as a major reason for the fact that in 2019, 238 Czech persons were employed in the German inland waterway sector, according to data from the German labour agency. Between 2013 and 2019, their number increased steadily. Persons from the Czech Republic represent the second largest group of foreigners working in the German inland navigation sector, behind Polish workers.
  •  
    Hungary

  • Hungary is an important country for European inland navigation. Situated in central Europe on the middle part of the Danube, it has a very large lake (Balaton), many river cruises, and its capital, Budapest, is a major destination.
  • The Hungarian Statistical Office (HCSO) produces data based on surveys about the number of employees in passenger IWT. These data however exclude on-board catering and bar services. The surveys aim at employees working at least 60 hours per month in a Hungarian company with at least five employees. According to these surveys, the number of such employees has increased in the last decade from 529 in 2010 to 665 in 2018. On the contrary, the respective number of employees in freight IWT has substantively decreased from 226 to 80 in the same period. The number of employees working in the sector of service activities incidental to IWT, such as maintenance services of canals and the operation of locks, increased massively from 97 to 414 in that period.
  •  

    FIGURE 49: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES* IN HUNGARY PER SECTOR


    Source: Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO)
    * Working at least 60 hours per month in a company with at least five employees.

     
    The figure below shows the share of employees who work in a “physical job” in contrast to a white-collar job, categories that vaguely trace the divide between working on board and working ashore. In passenger IWT, this share is approximately at the same level of about 68% in 2018 as in 2010, although it has followed a downward trend since 2014. The share of employees in freight IWT who work in a “physical job” has oscillated around the current level of about 64%, while it has decreased strongly to about 46% for the service activity sector.
     

    FIGURE 50: SHARE OF EMPLOYEES* WORKING IN A “PHYSICAL JOB” (IN %)


    Source: Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO), CCNR analysis. *Working at least 60 hours per month in a company with at least five employees.
     

  • According to a database of service record books maintained by the Shipping Authority of the Department of Transport of the Governmental Office of the Capital City Budapest, around 11% of shipping certificates during the 2010s were awarded to women. From this information, it can be cautiously deduced that about this share of employees on board of vessels in Hungarian IWT is female, assuming that the margin of error imposed by the imperfections of the service record books does not correlate with gender. According to such service record books, only a very small share of less than 1% of all shipping certificates were awarded to foreigners, mostly to Romanians and Slovaks.
  • Further employment data are available from the National Employment Service (NFSZ). Following the Hungarian Standard Classification of Occupations (HSCO), 610 persons worked as part of a vessel’s crew in Hungary in 2016. The average basic wage in this category amounted to about 534 Euro per month in 2016 and the average monthly total earnings, including additional payments, amounted to about 602 Euro. On the one hand, average total earnings in that year were 5% higher than for truck drivers. On the other hand, they were distinctly lower than for other occupations in the transport sector (e.g. about 58% lower than for train drivers and between 21% and 44% lower than for drivers of different types of buses). Compared to the entire Hungarian economy, persons employed as part of a vessel’s crew in IWT earned about 29% less.
  • Persons working in IWT in Hungary only had a small wage increase between their 20s and 30s when compared to other sectors. A similar finding is observed in France. However, monthly earnings in IWT in Hungary are much higher for persons between 51 and 55 years old than for all other age groups. This pattern is not visible for the entirety of the sectors in the Hungarian economy.
  •  

    FIGURE 51: AVERAGE MONTHLY EARNINGS (IN EURO) IN HUNGARIAN IWT IN 2016 BY AGE GROUP


    Sources: Hungarian National Employment Service (NFSZ), CCNR analysis Currency converted from Hungarian forint using the average of the ECB euro reference exchange rate for 2016 (https://www.ecb.europa.eu/stats/policy_and_exchange_rates/euro_reference_exchange_rates/html/eurofxref-graph-huf.en.html).
     

  • According to the NFSZ data, the number of persons working in companies with their main activity in IWT is higher than the number of persons working as part of a vessel’s crew. In 2016, 1,075 persons worked in passenger IWT and 447 persons in freight IWT. Monthly average total earnings amounted to about 523 Euro in passenger IWT and to about 990 Euro in freight IWT. This implies average earnings of about 660 Euro in Hungarian IWT, a slightly higher average than for the crew members. In France, it is also the case that persons working ashore earn more than persons working on board.
  • As the wages of persons employed in IWT in Hungary are low compared to the wages in countries such as the Netherlands, Germany, France and Austria, there is a strong incentive to leave the country in order to earn more abroad. Indeed, nearly 20% of all foreign employees working in IWT in Austria are Hungarian citizens. In Germany, this share amounts to about 3% (Source: Arbeitsmarktservice Austria and Bundesagentur für Arbeit).
  • Annual numbers of newly issued certificates of qualification could be obtained from the Department for Shipping Authority at the Hungarian Ministry for Innovation and Technology. The advantage compared to registers of service record books is that these numbers are less prone to distortions from certificates that are no longer actively used. It can be seen that the boatman certificate is the most often issued certificate in Hungary. In 2012, 205 such certificates were issued and in 2019, 239 certificates were issued. The numbers of other certificates fluctuate quite strongly over time but a positive development in 2019 can be recognised for the boatmaster certificates A and B.
  •  

    FIGURES 52 AND 53: NUMBER OF NEWLY ISSUED CERTIFICATES OF QUALIFICATION IN IWT IN HUNGARY



    Source: Department for Shipping Authority at the Hungarian Ministry for Innovation and Technology
     
    Romania

  • Romania is the largest Danube country measured by the number of persons working in that sector reported by the Eurostat SBS data (To some extent, Germany, which has a much higher IWT employment than Romania, is also a Danube country, as parts of the upper Danube are located in Germany. But German IWT is mainly orientated to the Rhine basin. Hence, only a very small share of its employment is related to Danube ports and Danube navigation).
  • Similar to other countries, Romania has experienced a steady and substantial increase in the number of employees working in passenger IWT during the last year. From 2015 to 2018, that number grew by about 28% from 277 to 355. It is also visible that this growth was predominantly driven by small enterprises. The number of employees working in companies with a maximum of nine employees more than doubled in that period of time, while the respective number in companies with 50 employees and more, remained more or less constant. Correspondingly, the number of enterprises with at most nine employees increased from 36 in 2015 to 79 in 2018, while just one additional enterprise with between 10 and 49 employees, and no additional enterprise with at least 50 employees, emerged.
  •  

    FIGURE 54: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN PASSENGER IWT BY COMPANY SIZE


    Source: National Institute of Statistics (NIS)
     

    FIGURE 55: NUMBER OF ENTERPRISES IN PASSENGER IWT BY COMPANY SIZE


    Source: National Institute of Statistics (NIS)

  • Compared to passenger IWT, freight IWT is more important in Romania in terms of the number of employees. However, the total number of employees in freight IWT remained more or less constant from 2015 to 2018. Contrary to passenger IWT, the number of employees in small enterprises, with at most nine employees, decreased in that time period due to a reduction of enterprises in this category from 66 to 49. A decrease in employment is also observed in the sole enterprise with at least 250 employees. These losses were compensated for by increases in companies with between 10 and 249 employees.
  •  

    FIGURE 56: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN FREIGHT IWT BY COMPANY SIZE


    Source: National Institute of Statistics (NIS)
     

    FIGURE 57: NUMBER OF ENTERPRISES IN FREIGHT IWT BY COMPANY SIZE


    Source: National Institute of Statistics (NIS)
     

  • All in all, in Romania the freight sector is far more important than the passenger sector, both in terms of number of employees and turnover. However, as is the case for other countries, the relative importance of passenger IWT in terms of employment has increased in the last years. In terms of the number of enterprises, passenger IWT even overtook freight IWT in 2018.
  • The Romanian Naval Authority provides data on the number and type of qualification certificates including service record books issued by this institution. However, such data do not allow drawing detailed conclusions about the current composition of Romania’s IWT work force differentiated by the ranks and tasks of persons employed on board of vessels. Indeed, a single person might hold multiple different certificates, all registered in the service record books, and some persons with certificates may no longer be active. Yet, assuming that the gender share is predominantly uninfluenced by these considerations, one can cautiously conclude that about 15% of the nautical crew below the level of boatmasters are female, whereas for boatmasters this share is below 0.1%. Of all persons employed on board other than the nautical crew (such as accommodation and gastronomic staff, as well as the more technically orientated staff), 15% are also women.
  •  
    Bulgaria

  • Another country with substantial access to the Danube is Bulgaria. Some information on its IWT employment could be gained from a survey of vessel owners and vessel operators conducted by the Bulgarian Maritime Administration in early 2020, concluding that 25 companies are active in IWT in Bulgaria. According to the data collected, 517 persons are employed in Bulgarian IWT on board of vessels. This figure matches quite well with the Eurostat figure of employment in freight transport for Bulgaria. According to the Eurostat SBS database, 584 persons were employed in IWW freight transport in Bulgaria in 2018, and an estimate 329 persons were employed in IWW passenger transport (see chapter 4).
  • All of the 81 boatmasters, and all but one of the 130 persons who are part of the nautical crew below the boatmaster level, are men. In contrast, 53 of the 126 persons employed as service staff on passenger ships are women. Roughly half of the persons work on vessels that travel to other countries whereas the other half is solely active within Bulgaria. While there are few Romanian boatmasters and few Ukrainians as part of the nautical crew below the boatmaster level, the large majority of employees are Bulgarian nationals.
  •  

    FIGURE 58: NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED IN BULGARIAN IWT ON BOARD OF VESSELS BY OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORY IN 2020


    Source: Bulgarian Maritime Administration
    Survey of vessel owners and vessel operators.

     

  • The Bulgarian National Employment Agency administers a data registry of Bulgarian nationals employed abroad in non-Bulgarian companies to whom they have provided employment mediation services. From March 2015 until February 2020, the registry contains a total of 36 persons who are employed as part of the nautical crew on board river vessels. Eight of them work in France, seven in Cyprus, six in Switzerland, six in Malta, five in Spain, three in the Netherlands and one in Romania.
  •  
    Croatia

  • In Croatia, IWT plays a quite small role, although the country has direct access to the Danube. In terms of employment, the importance of Croatian IWT has even imploded, from 191 employees in 2009 to just 22 employees in 2017, before slightly recovering to 42 employees in 2018 (The Eurostat SBS figures are slightly higher in most years but follow a very similar trend). As in other countries, the share of women among employees in IWT is very low and lies below 10%.
  •  

    FIGURE 59: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN IWT IN CROATIA BY GENDER


    Source: Croatian Bureau of Statistics – Annual survey of persons in employment and earnings
     

  • It should be taken into consideration that Croatia joined the European Union on 1 July 2013. This might have impacted its labour market substantially, particularly sectors such as inland navigation, in which labour can be shifted to other Member States quite easily. However, an increasing trend of Croatians emigrating to other EU countries to work in IWT cannot be found, at least not in the German and Austrian (Full freedom of movement for Croatians was only granted by Austria as from 1 July 2020) data. In that context, it should be mentioned that Croatian workers’ free movement was restricted by Germany until 1 July 2015, and by Austria even until 1 July 2020. This could be one reason for the low number of Croatians working in the Austrian and German IWT sector.
  •  
    Serbia

  • In Serbia, around 1,000 persons (employees and self-employed) work in IWT, according to figures from Eurostat SBS and the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (SORS) (SORS only gives the number of persons working in water transport as a whole. However, as Serbia is a landlocked country and Eurostat SBS reports only 57 persons employed in sea and coastal water transport in 2018, it is assumed that the numbers are not substantially distorted by sea and coastal water transport). No clear trend in that number has been visible in the last few years. The vast majority of persons are employed in freight transport.
  •  

    FIGURE 60: NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED IN IWT BY TYPE OF EMPLOYMENT IN SERBIA (2017)


    Source: Eurostat SBS, series [sbs_na_1a_se_r2]
     

  • According to the national statistical office (SORS) data, the average monthly gross earnings of persons employed in Serbian IWT amounted to around 616 Euro in 2019 as calculated by that year’s average exchange rate which was around 447 Euro net. The low earnings, also in comparison to other countries outside the EU-15, such as the Czech Republic and Hungary, create an incentive to move to countries with higher wages. Indeed, 42 Serbians worked in jobs subject to social security contributions in German IWT in 2019. In Austria, the respective number lies between 57 and 73, depending on how many persons registered in the Austrian AMS database, as citizens of the former Yugoslavia and of Serbia and Montenegro, are now Serbian citizens.
  •  
    Slovakia

  • According to data from the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, employment, including both employees and the self-employed, in Slovakian IWT has gradually decreased from 2010 onwards to reach its lowest point in 2016.
  •  

    FIGURE 61: NUMBER OF PERSONS EMPLOYED IN IWT IN SLOVAKIA


    Source: Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic
     

  • The average monthly wage of IWT workers in Slovakia increased from 2010 to 2016 with a slight downswing in 2013, and has since somewhat stabilised at a level that is substantially higher than IWT wages in other countries outside the EU-15, such as its neighbouring countries, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The reverse evolution observed between the number of persons employed and the average monthly wage, followed by a stabilisation of both indicators since 2016, could indicate that an equilibrium on the IWT labour market has been found. A slightly decreasing trend in the number of Slovak nationals working in German and Austrian IWT in the last years can also be observed. In 2019, 44 Slovak employees worked in German IWT and 13 in Austrian IWT.
  •  

    FIGURE 62: AVERAGE MONTHLY WAGE IN IWT IN SLOVAKIA (IN EURO)


    Source: Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic
     

  • For Slovakia, service record books data were also made available, but it was decided not to use them given possible doubts as to their reliability.
  •  
    Italy

  • Italian IWT is dominated by the passenger sector. According to the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), the number of employees in that sector has increased gradually and substantially for both men and women between 2013 and 2017.
  • In the same time period, the number of male employees in freight IWT has increased by a comparatively small margin, while the number of women in that sector has stagnated at a low level. In 2017, about 23% of all employees in passenger IWT and about 19% of all employees in freight IWT had temporary contracts. About 13% of the employees in the passenger sector and about 22% of the employees in the freight sector worked part-time. For both sectors, the medium-term trend showed increases. Less than 3% of the employees in passenger IWT and about 5% of the employees in freight IWT did not have Italian citizenship.
  •  

    FIGURE 63: NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN IWT IN ITALY BY SECTOR AND GENDER


    Source: Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)
     

  • The number of self-employed persons in Italian IWT evolved less positively between 2012 and 2017. The increase in the passenger sector was smaller than for employees and the number in the freight sector decreased slightly. In 2017, about 2% of the self-employed in passenger IWT and about 9% of the self-employed in freight IWT were helping family members.
  •  

    FIGURE 64: NUMBER OF SELF-EMPLOYED IN IWT IN ITALY BY PASSENGER AND FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION


    Source: Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)
     

  • Counting employees and self-employed together, about 83% of all persons employed in Italian passenger IWT and about 97% of all persons employed in Italian freight IWT, work for companies in the Metropolitan City of Venice. As the ISTAT figures closely resemble the Eurostat SBS figures for Italy, it can be concluded that the nearly 2,000 persons employed in passenger IWT in that region made up for about 9% of all employment in that sector in the EU-28 in that year.
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