• The recovery in goods transport on inland waterways was also reflected by higher figures for waterside goods handling in ports. An increase by 3.2% of the 15 largest Rhine ports’ total waterside goods handling can be observed.
• The results for the Port of Duisburg, the largest inland port in Europe, was 5.9% higher than the previous year. The second largest inland port in Europe, the Port of Paris, recorded a slight decrease in waterside goods transport by 1.6%. For the Port of Liège, another large inland port in Europe, the result was 7.2% higher than in 2020.
• Inland waterway transport in most seaports increased as well. Examples are the Port of Rotterdam (+6%), the Port of Antwerp (+7.5%), the North Sea Port (+9.0%), and the Port of Constanţa (+6.7%) in the lower Danube region. The Port of Hamburg recorded a strong decrease (-16.9%).

 

MAIN EUROPEAN SEAPORTS


    Sources: Port Statistics, Eurostat [iww_go_aport], CBS
    * For most ports: data from 2019; Zeebrugge, Brugge, Dunkerque: data from 2016

     

    Source: Romanian national Institute of Statistics

    ROTTERDAM

    • Rotterdam is the largest European seaport and remains the market leader in the Hamburg-Le Havre range.39 The volumes of loaded or unloaded IWT cargo at the Port of Rotterdam increased by 6% to 158.2 million tonnes in 2021 (compared to 149.7 million tonnes in 2020). Both the liquid cargo (+ 1.8%) and the dry cargo (+11.9%) segments increased. So did container transport (+2.6%). As observed in previous years, outgoing traffic continues to play an important role at the port. In 2020, 99,558 inland vessels visited the Port of Rotterdam, almost 8,000 more vessels than in 2020.
    • It is also worth noting that inland navigation plays an important role in the Port of Moerdijk, situated between Rotterdam and Antwerp. In 2021, IWT goods transport at the Port of Moerdijk reached a volume of almost 10.5 million tonnes.
    •  

      FIGURE 1: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN THE SEAPORT OF ROTTERDAM (IN MILLION TONNES)


      Source: Port of Rotterdam based on CBS
       

      FIGURE 2: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN THE SEAPORT OF ROTTERDAM PER CARGO SEGMENT (IN MILLION TONNES) *


      Source: Port of Rotterdam based on CBS
      * General cargo is not taken into account in these calculations. In 2021, the volume transported for general cargo amounted to 5.4 million tonnes.

       

    ANTWERP

    • In 2021, 59,383 inland vessels frequented the Port of Antwerp (compared to 56,583 in 2020). The inland waterway goods transport at the Port of Antwerp significantly increased by 7.5% in 2021, reaching a volume of 108.5 million tonnes (compared to 101.0 in 2020). Both imports and exports increased.
    • The modal split within total maritime throughput (but excluding industrial traffic40) in 2021 was as follows: 41.5% for road, 7.1% for rail and 51.4% for barges (compared to the figures in 2020 as follows: 45% road, 47.3% for IWT and 7.7% for rail). In 2021, the modal split share within container transport to and from the hinterland was 56.8% for road, 35.8% for IWT and 7.4% for rail. For IWT, the goal is to increase this share to 43% by 2030.
    • The most relevant market segments are petroleum products and chemicals, which make up more than half of the total cargo handling in riverside transport. They are followed by container transport, with a share approaching 25% of total riverside transport. Dry bulk has a share of 12.1%.
    • Compared to 2020, an increase in the transport of metalware was observed in 2021, particularly on the imports side. An increase was also noticeable for most of the market segments, but foodstuff and fodder as well as the transport of raw minerals and building materials, experienced a decrease.
    • Container volumes experienced a slight increase in 2021 compared to 2020.
    •  

      FIGURE 3: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN THE SEAPORT OF ANTWERP (IN MILLION TONNES)


      Source: Port of Antwerp
       

      FIGURE 4: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN THE SEAPORT OF ANTWERP PER CARGO SEGMENT (IN MILLION TONNES) *


      Source: Port of Antwerp
      * Ro/ro general and not assigned goods are not taken into account in these calculations (in 2021, the volume transported for these three cargo types amounted to 7.7 million tonnes, mostly attributed to conventional goods).

    NORTH SEA PORT

    • In the North Sea Port (Ghent, Terneuzen, Borsele, Flushing), 40,912 inland vessels called at the port in 2021(compared to 41,446 in 2020).
    • The evolution of inland waterway transport usually follows the evolution of seagoing transport. With nearly 69 million tonnes of seaborne cargo transhipped in 2021, the North Sea Port grew by 9% compared to the Covid year of 2020. Total river transport experienced a full recovery in 2021, amounting to 59.7 million tonnes. This also represents a 9% increase compared to 2020, well above its pre-pandemic (2018) volume of 58.5 million tonnes. The import-export ratio was 41% / 59%. The port expects to completely eliminate losses due to the pandemic in 2022, both for seagoing and inland waterway transport.
    • Regarding types of transport, this increase in inland waterway transport was driven by a surge in exports (+14%). From the perspective of cargo segments, this increase was driven by liquid bulk (+17%), particularly vegetable oils and chemical products. Dry bulk and general cargo both saw an absolute growth of around 0.5 million tonnes. Container transport decreased. Regarding a modal split for hinterland transport, inland navigation ranks first with a share of 58% followed by road (30%), rail (10%) and transshipment (2%).
    •  

      FIGURE 5: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN THE NORTH SEA PORT (IN MILLION TONNES)


      Source: North Sea Port
      * Ro/ro and conventional cargo are not taken into account in these calculations (in 2021, the volume transported for these two cargo types amounted to respectively 0.31 million tonnes and 2.44 million tonnes).

       

    CONSTANŢA

    • In Constanţa, 10,619 inland vessels called at the port in 2021 (10,344 in 2020). Inland waterway transport increased by almost 6.7%, to reach 15.86 million tonnes compared to 2020. It is worth noting that the total cargo transport registered at the Port of Constanţa (both maritime and inland waterway transport) in 2021 represents the largest freight transport level in the history of Romanian maritime ports. Cereal transport reached 25.17 million tonnes compared to 21.9 million tonnes in 2020, the largest grain transport ever registered at the Port.
    • Regarding inland waterway transport specifically, mainly dry cargo is handled in the Port of Constanţa, with a share above 90% of the total cargo volume in 2021. Dry cargo volumes registered a 5% increase compared to 2020. This increase was mostly driven by the transport of cereals and liquid cargo volumes also increased. Container and general cargo amounted to almost 400,000 tonnes in 2021, mostly attributed to general cargo. Cabotage and transit traffic together had a share of 98% in 2021 while export and import traffic had a share of only 2%.
    • The Dionysus41 and IW-NET42 projects the aims of which include developing container transport on the Danube are ongoing. The Port of Constanţa is identified as an important player to drive this development. Indeed, a very small number of containers are currently being transported on the Danube and are mainly empty. However, there is free capacity available on the Danube for the development of container transport and connections with strong industrial regions in southeast Europe also exist, which can be considered as favourable.
    • At the same time, there are also several unfavourable conditions, such as the lack of adequate container handling infrastructure in ports, the need for vessels to be adapted to navigate in low water periods, administrative and political obstacles, long container transit times, lack of information among shippers regarding inland navigation container transport. Despite this context and the several attempts to develop container transport on the Danube, recent public policy developments such as the EU-Green Deal and the availability of public subsidies, may have a positive impact on the development of this new market on the Danube.
    • Regarding the impact of the war in Ukraine on inland navigation, it can be highlighted that some increases in dry cargo transport have been registered, linked to more cereals being transported from Ukraine via the Port of Constanţa. The impact of war is more visible on road and rail transport, given that an important flow of goods is being redirected to the Port of Constanţa. So far, maritime transport at the Port of Constanţa increased due to the war in Ukraine.
    •  

      FIGURE 6: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN THE SEAPORT OF CONSTANŢA (IN MILLION TONNES)


      Sources: Port of Constanţa
       

    HAMBURG

    • Volumes transported by IWT decreased by 16.9% in 2021 (7 million tonnes) compared to 2020 (8.3 million tonnes) in the Port of Hamburg. Both imports (-19.6%) and exports (-13.4%) experienced a strong reduction. Many factors contributed to this decrease: congestion, Covid pandemic, ice and low water periods on the Elbe, operational restrictions at critical points of the hinterland infrastructure such as the Scharnebeck vessel lift. Alongside such factors, a change in statistical recording in 2021, resulting in a downwards distortion in the data series, can partly explain this reduction. The number of vessels calling at the port also decreased by 25% to reach 10,599 port calls in 2021.
    • Overall bulk cargo has been following a decreasing trend since 2015 (-38.5%). The two main cargo types within IWT at the Port of Hamburg both recorded lower values, with a reduction by almost 18% for ores and mining products and by 21.3% for coke and petroleum products. A similar decrease in transport of coke and petroleum products was already observed in 2020 (-24.3%). However, transport of coal, crude oil and natural gas experienced an increase of 70%, which results mainly from the high gas prices observed in 2021 and the resulting shift towards coal in the energy sector (see Chapter 2). A stable trend is observed for container transport.
    • As in 2020, hinterland transport consisted of 92 million tonnes of transported goods in 2021. With a share of 52.8%, railway transport is ahead of truck transport with 39.7% and inland waterway transport with 7.6% (against 9% in 2020).
    •  

      FIGURE 7: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN THE SEAPORT OF HAMBURG (IN MILLION TONNES)


      Source: Statistical Office of Hamburg
       

      FIGURE 8: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN THE SEAPORT OF HAMBURG PER CARGO SEGMENT (IN MILLION TONNES) *


      Source: Statistical Office of Hamburg
      * General cargo is not taken into account in these calculations (in 2021, the volume transported for this cargo type amounted to 0.1 million tonnes).

 
 

MAIN EUROPEAN INLAND PORTS43

    RHINE PORTS

      TABLE 1: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN MAJOR RHINE PORTS (IN MILLION TONNES) AND RATE OF CHANGE 2021/2020 *

       20182019202020212021/2020
      Duisburg48.147.842.444.9+5.9%
      Cologne8.99.19.19.8+8.1%
      Mannheim7.57.96.97.3+6.5%
      Strasbourg5.97.56.86.9+2.0%
      Ludwigshafen6.16.66.86.9+2.1%
      Neuss7.66.96.56.6+1.1%
      Karlsruhe6.46.96.26.4+2.7%
      Basel4.76.15.15.4+5.5%
      Kehl3.94.24.44.4+0.3%
      Mulhouse4.44.94.24.1-2.9%
      Krefeld3.33.63.03.4+11.3%
      Mainz3.23.73.83.1-17.9%
      Andernach2.32.72.72.7+/-0%
      Wesseling2.02.72.52.1-14.8%
      Wesel1.72.02.02.1+4.0%
      Total116.0122.6112.4116.1+3.2%

      Sources: Destatis, Port de Strasbourg, Swiss Rhine ports, Port de Mulhouse
      The “total” relates only to the ports mentioned in the table, not all Rhine ports.
      * Data on German ports are based on the geographical approach, which means that all cargo turnover within a city is taken into account and not only the cargo handled in a specific port.

       

      TOTAL YEARLY WATERSIDE TRAFFIC (IN MILLION TONNES)

     

    PORTS IN GERMANY OUTSIDE THE RHINE *

      TABLE 2: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN MAJOR NON-RHINE PORTS IN GERMANY (IN MILLION TONNES) AND RATE OF CHANGE 2021/2020 *

       20182019202020212021/2020
      Hamburg9.88.77.97.6-3.9%
      Frankfurt am Main4.75.45.75.4-5.1%
      Gelsenkirchen3.94.74.64.9+7.3%
      Bremen3.72.82.73.3+22.2%
      Marl3.13.33.23.1-3.9%
      Brunsbüttel3.43.12.72.8+4.9%
      Bottrop3.03.83.12.8-9.6%
      Salzgitter2.82.92.22.7+21.2%
      Magdeburg2.52.32.62.7+0.9%
      Saarlouis2.92.61.92.6+34.2%
      Lünen2.42.61.82.3+31.1%
      Heilbronn2.12.31.82.2+17.6%
      Hamm3.52.82.72.1-21.2%
      Lingen (Ems)2.62.31.92.1+5.4%
      Berlin2.31.91.81.8+2.1%
      Total52.751.546.648.4+3.9%

      Source: Destatis
      * Data on German ports are based on the geographical approach, which means that all cargo turnover within a city is taken into account and not only the cargo handled in a specific port. For Hamburg, figures according to this approach are therefore higher than the figures of the Port of Hamburg, due to other transshipment places in the city.

       

      TOTAL YEARLY WATERSIDE TRAFFIC (IN MILLION TONNES)

    DUTCH PORTS

      TABLE 3: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN MAJOR DUTCH PORTS (IN MILLION TONNES) AND RATE OF CHANGE 2021/2020

       20182019202020212021/2020
      Rotterdam152.8152.8150.6158.7 +5.4%
      Amsterdam 60.1 60.0 53.160.4 +13.8%
      Vlissingen 15.3 19.9 17.021.5 +26.6%
      Terneuzen 14.1 14.4 14.313.0 -9.4%
      Moerdijk10.2 10.2 10.911.3 +3.7%
      Sittard-Geleen6.3 6.8 6.47.1+11.3%
      Velsen4.6 6.4 6.67.2+8.8%
      Urk5.1 6.0 2.50.6-77.3%
      Dordrecht5.3 5.7 6.46.8+4.8%
      Delfzijl6.4 5.2 4.24.6+10.1%
      Nijmegen2.8 4.1 5.15.7+10.5%
      Hengelo (O)3.6 4.0 3.83.6-5.3%
      Gennep3.7 3.2 3.23.3+5.5%
      Stein3.6 3.1 3.13.3+7.9%
      Sluis3.3 2.8 3.03.0+/-0%
      Total298.0305.3290.2310.1+6.9%

      Source: CBS
       

      TOTAL YEARLY WATERSIDE TRAFFIC (IN MILLION TONNES)


       

    FRENCH AND BELGIAN PORTS

      TABLE 4: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN MAJOR FRENCH AND BELGIAN PORTS (IN MILLION TONNES) AND RATE OF CHANGE 2021/2020

       20182019202020212021/2020
      Antwerp102.399.3101.3101.0-0.3%
      Paris22.125.322.822.5-1.6%
      Liège16.016.013.914.9+7.2%
      Strasbourg5.97.56.86.9+2.0%
      Rouen4.85.55.95.4-7.9%
      Brussels5.25.24.95.4+10.0%
      Mulhouse4.44.94.24.1-2.9%
      Namur5.14.63.84.3+11.4%
      Le Havre3.23.42.73.0+10.7%
      Marseille2.52.81.92.1+5.5%
      Dunkirk2.42.52.92.6-10.3%
      Metz1.92.22.01.7-13.9%
      Lille1.81.92.02.3+14.5%
      Lyon1.41.11.01.2+10.6%
      Villefranche-sur-Saône 0.80.80.70.7-0.4%
      Total179.8185.0177.2178.3+1.4%

      Sources: Ministère de la transition écologique, Voies Navigables de France, Ports de Paris, Port de Liège, Port de Strasbourg, Port de Mulhouse, Port de Bruxelles, Port de Namur, Nouveau Port de Metz, Port de Lille, Port de Dunkerque, Port of Antwerp
      The “total” relates only to the ports mentioned in the table, and not to all French and Belgian ports.

       

      TOTAL YEARLY WATERSIDE TRAFFIC (IN MILLION TONNES)

     

    DANUBE PORTS

      TABLE 5: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN MAJOR DANUBE PORTS (IN MILLION TONNES) AND RATE OF CHANGE 2021/2020

       20182019202020212021/2020
      Constanţa12.114.514.515.8+9.3%
      Galati6.45.94.55.4+19.3%
      Ismail4.74.33.24.1+25.5%
      Linz3.23.33.43.5+2.1%
      Smederovo3.64.02.63.2+21.3%
      Pancevo1.41.52.01.9-6.4%
      Bratislava1.51.71.51.8+14.2%
      Giurgulesti1.91.31.21.8+53.5%
      Novi Sad1.01.41.61.4-12.1%
      Reni1.31.30.81.4+74.3%
      Tulcea1.71.61.21.3+9.6%
      Regensburg1.11.31.51.3-16.1%
      Drobeta Turnu Severin1.11.21.01.2+20.4%
      Budapest-Csepel0.91.11.21.2+0.6%
      Prahovo1.01.11.21.0-12.9%
      Măcin-Turcoaia0.80.91.21.0+2.0%
      Giurgiu0.70.80.81.0+20.3
      Călăraşi-Chiciu0.71.10.90.9-8.1%
      Vienna1.01.20.80.9+17.8%
      Enns0.50.80.60.7+9.1%
      Baja0.30.50.80.6-31.2%
      Total47.250.846.951.7+10.1%

      Sources: Danube Commission market observation, Romanian Statistical Institute, Austrian Statistical Institute
      The “total” relates only to the ports mentioned in the table and not all Danube ports. In Figure 5, the data used come from the Port of Constanţa while the data used in this table come from the Romanian Statistical Institute. This can explain the slight difference in the figures reported.

       

      TOTAL YEARLY WATERSIDE TRAFFIC (IN MILLION TONNES)

     

    SAVA PORTS

      TABLE 6: INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN MAJOR SAVA PORTS (IN THOUSAND TONNES) AND RATE OF CHANGE 2021/2020*

       20182019202020212021/2020
      Other ports (Serbia)6829492,1002,283+8.7%
      Sremska Mitrovica (Serbia)234560486693+42.6%
      Sabac (Serbia)149149170224+31.8%
      Slavonski Brod (Croatia)131199138192+39.1%
      Sisak (Croatia)66705529-47.3%
      Brčko (Bosnia and Herzegovina - BaH)981257331-57.5%
      Oil refinery Brod (Bosnia and Herzegovina - BaH)29800+/-0.0%
      Total1,3892,0603,0223,452+14.2%

      Source: Sava Commission
      * In 2015, the Port of Šamac in Bosnia and Herzegovina reported bankruptcy, therefore no transshipment of cargo has been recorded since then. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 and reconstruction of the Brod oil refinery in 2021, no transshipment at the river terminal was recorded in 2020 and 2021. Since 2018 and 2019, data for smaller transshipment places in Serbia began to be collected which explains the increasing amount of transshipped goods recorded in Serbia for those years.

       

      TOTAL YEARLY WATERSIDE TRAFFIC (IN THOUSAND TONNES)