Glossary

20XX-1/20XX-Q1:first quarter
20XX-2/20XX-Q2: second quarter
20XX-3/20XX-Q3: third quarter
ACTUAL DRAUGHT OF A VESSEL: vertical difference between the waterline at which the ship is sailing, and the keel of a ship.
ADN : European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways
ARA REGION: Amsterdam – Rotterdam – Antwerp
ARTICLE 12 OF REGULATION (EC) NO. 883/2004 ON THE COORDINATION OF SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEMS: provides for an exception to the lex loci laboris rule. It allows for a person working as an employed person in the territory of a Member State – on behalf of an employer that normally carries out its activities in that State, and who is sent by that employer to another Member State to perform work there for that employer – continues to be subject to the legislation of the posting State provided that the anticipated duration of that work does not exceed 24 months, and he or she is not sent to replace another person. The same rules apply with respect to self-employed persons who pursue an activity as a self-employed person in a Member State and who go to pursue a similar activity in another Member State. This means that social security contributions are paid according to the legislation of the employer’s home state or where the self-employed person is established (the “sending state”).
AVAILABLE OR POSSIBLE DRAUGHT OF A VESSEL: minimum navigation channel depth + (actual water level – equivalent water level) – under keel clearance.
AVERAGE UTILISATION RATE (OF A CARGO FLEET): relation between the needed tonnage (needed due to transport demand in a certain year) and the available tonnage in that same year, in percentage terms.
BN: billion
CBR: Central Office for Motor Vehicle Driver Testing
CEMT: Classification of European Inland Waterways
CONTAINER EXCHANGE ROUTE (CER): in the Netherlands, this route links Maasvlakte’s container companies and allows the companies to minimise the cost of container exchanges. This improves their respective hinterland and transhipment process and strengthens Rotterdam’s competitive position as a container hub.
CONTANGO: a situation where spot market prices are below prices for a future delivery of oil products.
CPTPP: Comprehensive and Progressive agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership
DANUBE COUNTRIES: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia
DARES: Direction de l’Animation de la recherche, des Études et des Statistiques. DARES is a directorate of the French central public administration, reporting to the Ministry of Labour. The DARES compiles and analyses statistics concerning the labour market in France.
DIRECTIVE (2018/957) or POSTED WORKERS DIRECTIVE (PWD)): clarifies that when sent by their employer to another Member State to carry out a service on the employer’s behalf, core terms and conditions of employment, such as minimum paid holidays, minimum rest time, maximum working time, remuneration, etc. will have to be applied according to host Member State rules, while the rest of the conditions will be governed by the law applicable to the employment relationship. In case of a long-term posting, which exceeds 12 months (or 18 months in case of motivated notification made by the employer), all terms and conditions of the host Member State will become applicable.
Since its revision in 2018, all sectors, with the exception of the international road transport sector, are now subject to the payment of ‘remuneration’ and all its mandatory elements. While to date posted workers were only guaranteed the minimum rates of pay of the host Member State, they are now entitled to domestic collective bargaining wages (stemming from universally applicable collective agreements) including premiums for qualification or seniority and also to all additional benefits such as holiday and Christmas allowances, so that the rules of remuneration must be the same for posted workers as for local workers.
DRAUGHT OF A VESSEL: distance between the vessel’s keel and the waterline of the vessel
ECB: European Central Bank
EQUIVALENT WATER LEVEL: refers to a low water level under which, on a 30-year average, the water levels do not fall below more than 20 ice free days per year.
ESTUARY TRANSPORT: in Belgium, transport performed by estuary vessels, specific inland vessels that can also be used for non-international sea voyages. These inland vessels are allowed by a Royal Decree to operate in coastal areas between the Belgian coastal ports and the Belgian inland waterway network via the Schelde estuary provided they comply with certain requirements.
EU: European Union
EU DIRECTIVE 2016/1629: a European directive laying down technical requirements for inland vessels
EUROPE: European inland navigation in this report includes two countries that are not members of the European Union, Switzerland and Serbia.
EUROSTAT SBS: EUROSTAT Structural Business Statistics
FAIRWAY DUES: applied by a few countries, these fees were implemented for calling ships and depend on the size of the ship and the weight of the cargo carried.
FARAG REGION: Flushing, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Ghent
FREIGHT RATE: price at which a cargo is delivered from one point to another.
FTE: full-time equivalents. One FTE corresponds to the workload of one person with a standard full-time contract. As an example, two persons working 20 hours per week each correspond to one FTE if a standard full-time contract comprises 40 hours per week.
GDP: Gross Domestic Product (basic measure of the overall size of a country’s economy)
GOS: Gross Operating Surplus, abbreviated as GOS, is gross output of an industry less the cost of intermediate goods and services (to give gross value added), and less compensation of employees and taxes and subsidies on production and imports.
INLAND FREIGHT TRANSPORT MODES: these include road, rail and inland waterways
INLAND WATERWAY BOUNDARY: in the UK, a boundary defined as the most seaward point of any estuary which might reasonably be bridged or tunnelled and this is taken to be where the width of water surface area is both less than 3 km at low water and less than 5 km at high water on spring tides.
INLAND WATERWAY TRANSIT TRANSPORT: inland waterway transport through a country between two places (a place of loading/embarkation and a place of unloading/disembarkation) both located in another country or in other countries provided that the total journey within the country is by inland waterways and that there is no loading/embarkation and unloading/ disembarkation operation in the transit country. IWT vessels loaded/unloaded at the frontier of that country onto/from another mode of transport are included.
IWT: Inland Waterways Transport
IWW: Inland Waterways
LAKE-SEA SHIPPING: in Sweden and Finland river-sea transport is referred to as lake-sea shipping as this type of transport mainly takes place between lakes (Saimaa, Vänern, Mälaren), representing the inland component, and the Sea (Baltic and North Sea).
LOADING DEGREE: percentage of maximum vessel loading capacity
LOWER RHINE: section of the Rhine which flows from Bonn, Germany, to the North Sea at Hoek van Holland, the Netherlands. Within the figures for the traditional Rhine, the term “Lower Rhine” refers to the stretch of the Lower Rhine in Germany
MARITIME DANUBE: downstream of the port of Braila, the Danube is often called the maritime Danube, due to its river-sea character.
MEDIAN: a statistical indicator, which should not be confounded with the arithmetic average of a series. The median of a data series, in this case of a wage series, is the value which divides the data series (sorted by size) into two equal halves. 50% of the wages are therefore higher than the median wage, and 50% are lower than the median wage. Compared to the arithmetic average, the median is less influenced by extremely high or extremely low wages. It therefore gives a more realistic picture of the ‘typical’ wage level.
MIO: million
MODAL SPLIT INDICATOR: the percentage of inland waterway transport in total inland freight transport performance (road, rail, IWT) measured in tonne-kilometres.
MODAL SPLIT SHARE: share of inland waterway transport performance in total transport performance (IWT, road, rail)
NACE: Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community
NORTH SEA PORT: the name of the port formed by the cross-border merger between Zeeland Seaports (Flushing, Borsele and Terneuzen) in the Netherlands and Ghent Port Company in Belgium.
OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
POSTED WORKER: according to Directive 2018/957 (the Posted Workers Directive), a posted worker is a worker who, for a limited period, carries out his/her work in the territory of a Member State other than the State in which he/she normally works.
PP: percentage point (unit for the difference of two percentages. For example, moving up from 40% to 44% is a 4 percentage point increase, but is a 10 percent increase in what is being measured)
RHINE COUNTRIES: Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland
’RIVER’ DANUBE: upstream of the port of Braila, Danube traffic is classical river traffic
RIVER-SEA SHIP: a seagoing ship adapted to navigate both at sea and on certain stretches of inland waterways.
RIVER-SEA TRANSPORT: according to the Eurostat Reference Manual of Inland Waterways Transport Statistics a transport operation partly by inland waterways (IWW) and partly by sea, without transhipment. It can be operated by inland vessels or seagoing ships. Any inland vessel undertaking such transport will need to have the appropriate authorisation permitting it to operate at sea.
RUHR AREA: a dense urban area in western Germany and the largest industrial area in western Europe.
SAIMAA CANAL: a Finnish navigable canal connecting the Saimaa lake system near the city of Lappeenranta to the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic sea near the city of Vyborg.
SMALL VESSELS: vessels with a loading capacity of up to 1,500 tonnes. According to an alternative definition, small vessels have a loading capacity of 650 tonnes or less.
SHORT-SEA TRAFFIC: trips made by seagoing ships between European seaports.
STEEL DEMAND PER CAPITA: steel production plus imports minus exports, per capita
SULINA CANAL: Romanian waterway with river-sea traffic linking the Black Sea with the river-sea port of Tulcea.
SÖDERTÄLJE CANAL: Swedish waterway connecting the lake Mälaren at the city of Södertälje to the Baltic Sea
TEU: Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit (unit for container volume)
THE EUROPEAN CRUISE FLEET: cruise vessels with more than 39 beds which operate in the EU and in Switzerland.
THE INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANISATION (IMO): the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine and atmospheric pollution by ships.
THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON LOAD LINES (LL): an international convention whose provisions were made for determining the freeboard of ships.
THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION FOR THE PREVENTION OF MARINE POLLUTION FROM SHIPS (MARPOL): the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes.
THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION FOR THE SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA (SOLAS): an international maritime treaty which sets minimum safety standards in the construction, equipment and operation of merchant ships.
THE SMOOTH WATERLINE: in the UK, this is a boundary within estuaries, where all transport that remains completely within this Smooth Waterline is counted as pure (internal) inland waterway traffic.
TKM: tonne-kilometre (unit for transport performance which represents volume of goods transported multiplied by transport distance)
TRADITIONAL RHINE: section of the Rhine from Basel to the border between the Netherlands and Germany
TROLLHÄTTE CANAL: a Swedish waterway connecting the lake Vänern to the Kattegat (Baltic) Sea.
TURNOVER: sales volume in a given period net of sales taxes.
UNDER-KEEL CLEARANCE: the distance between the lowest point on the ship’s keel (or hull) and the highest point on the channel bottom beneath the ship. This is so to say the “security margin” under the keel.
UPPER RHINE: section of the Rhine in the Upper Rhine Plain between Basel in Switzerland and Bingen in Germany
VERTICAL INTEGRATION (in logistics and in particular in inland navigation): in general, it would mean that an IWT company is not only transporting goods from point A to point B, without any influence on the backward and forward parts of the logistics chain. Backward vertical integration would be present if an inland waterway transport company also owns the freight forwarding process which is quite often done by other (larger) logistics firms.. Forward vertical integration would mean that inland navigation companies would also control the selling and marketing of the products that they are transporting.
WATERSIDE GOODS TRAFFIC: loading or unloading activity in ports, which includes inland vessels.
WATERSIDE PORTS TRAFFIC: the volume of transhipment, measured in tonnes, of the following transhipment activities: transhipment ‘vessel – vessel’, ‘vessel – road vehicle’, ‘vessel – freight wagon’, ‘vessel – quay’.

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